Does metacognition, i.e. the capacity to form epistemic self-evaluations about one’s current cognitive performance, derive from a mindreading capacity, or does it rely, at least in part, on sui generis informational processes? In The Philosophy of Metacognition Joelle Proust provides a powerful defense of the second position. Drawing on discussions of empirical evidence from comparative, developmental, and experimental psychology, as well as fromneuroscience, and on conceptual analyses, she shows that, in contrast with analytic metacognition, procedural metacognition does not need to involve metarepresentations-and, furthermore, that metacognition isessentially related to mental agency, i.e. cognitive control and monitoring.